What is a blood sugar level? Easy-to-understand explanation of normal value and rising mechanism

 Blood sugar level is an important index for measuring physical health. This time, I will explain the basics of blood sugar levels such as fluctuations in blood sugar levels and normal levels.

We will also introduce diabetes that progresses due to high blood sugar levels and countermeasures.

What is a blood sugar level? Easy-to-understand explanation of normal value and rising mechanism
Blood Sugar

Is the value different on an empty stomach and after a meal? What is a blood sugar level
The concentration of glucose in the blood is called the blood sugar level.
We eat to live. The diet contains carbohydrates such as bread, rice, and noodles.

This carbohydrate, sugar, is digested and absorbed in the body to become glucose, which enters the blood and becomes energy for the body. The concentration of glucose in the blood is the blood sugar level.

Therefore, even in a healthy person, the blood glucose level on an empty stomach and after a meal changes.
However, in a healthy person, the blood sugar level changes within a certain range, but in a diabetic person, the fluctuation range becomes large, and abnormal hyperglycemia can occur.

Normal blood sugar level and how it rises

In healthy people, even if the blood sugar level rises due to diet, the hormone insulin is secreted from the pancreas, and the blood sugar level does not rise excessively and is controlled with an upper limit of 140 mg / dL as a guide.

Then, about 2 hours after finishing the meal, the blood glucose level returns to 70-110 mg / dL, which is the value on an empty stomach.

However, people with diabetes continue to have low blood sugar levels even two hours after eating due to low insulin secretion or poor insulin response.

What is postprandial hyperglycemia?

When measuring blood sugar levels in health checkups, it is often done before meals.
Therefore, many people do not know their postprandial blood glucose level.

Some people have normal fasting blood glucose levels and have not been diagnosed with diabetes, but have risen above 140 mg / dL after eating.

When the blood sugar level rises after eating in this way, harmful active oxygen is generated from the cells, and eventually, arteriosclerosis of blood vessels progresses. As a result, the walls of blood vessels can break and break, or become easily clogged, creating a dangerous situation.

Diet and lifestyle necessary to lower blood sugar level

Choose foods that slowly absorb sugar to prevent postprandial hyperglycemia.
There is an index called GI (Glycemic Index) as a criterion for this.
This is a number that shows how quickly your blood sugar level rises when you ingest 50 g of carbohydrates from that ingredient.

The rate of increase in blood glucose level is expressed numerically when glucose, which has the highest rate of increase in blood glucose level, is set to 100.
In order not to raise the blood sugar level after meals, it is desirable that sugar is absorbed slowly, so it is necessary to select foods with a low GI value.

For example, most fish and shellfish, legumes, vegetables, and seaweeds have a low GI.
As for noodles, soba has a lower GI value than udon and pasta, and there are also pasta and bread using whole grain flour with a low GI value. As a criterion, choose ingredients with a GI value of 55 or less.

Is low blood sugar a problem?

Low blood sugar is a big problem.
When the blood sugar level is 70 mg / dL or less, symptoms that stimulate the sympathetic nerve to appear.
For example, palpitation, cold sweats, trembling fingers, and discomfort.

Furthermore, when the blood sugar level drops below 50 mg / dL, important organs such as the brain become energy deficient.
As a result, consciousness may be stunned, yawning may occur multiple times, and headaches and dizziness may worsen.
Further low blood sugar levels can lead to convulsions and complete unconsciousness.

It’s easy to pay attention only to high blood sugar levels, but be careful not to be too low.


If the blood sugar level is high, there are no subjective symptoms at the initial stage, so many people may have left it unattended even if it is pointed out in a medical examination.

However, if the blood sugar level continues to be high, the damage to the blood vessels will increase, and eventually, the blood vessels such as the brain and heart may be adversely affected.

That’s why you need to deal with it late and early after something happens. Think of your blood sugar as something more familiar to you.

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