What is leadership? Drucker definition and type, concrete action summary

 Leadership is very important for an organization to carry out a project. However, the definition is often ambiguous because people have different images of leadership.


What is leadership?
Leadership
  • What is leadership
  • Meaning and definition
  • kinds
  • Concrete example
  • ability
  • element
  • Development method

Let’s look at such things from multiple perspectives.

1. 1. What does leadership mean?

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Leadership refers to “the ability to set goals, build (or maintain) teams, and produce results within an organization. ” Many people may think of the word “lead” in leadership as “leading the team” or “taking command”.

But they are not the elements required or needed in leadership.

In recent years , the mainstream thinking about leadership is not the innate talents and qualities, but the ones that can be acquired or demonstrated acquiredIn other words, any type of person has the potential to demonstrate leadership.

Definition of leadership

Peter Drucker’s Definition of Leadership

Austrian business scholar Peter Drucker, also known as the inventor of modern business administration, talks about the essence of leadership. It was completely different from the meaning of “moving people.”

Peter Drucker has three definitions of leadership.

  1. Leadership and followership
  2. Seeing leadership as a job
  3. Take leadership as a responsibility
① Leadership and followership

“Trusting doesn’t mean you like the leader. You don’t always agree. You can be confident that what the leader says is what you mean. It’s a belief in the very old thing of sincerity. “

Drucker says of leaders, “The only definition of a leader is that there is a follower.” There will be a few notes on this.

A “follower” is not a “forced follower.” On the contrary, it is interpreted in the proactive and active sense of “a person who follows based on his own will because he trusts the leader .”

Many leaders in an organization are not truly loved by team members just because they are in a position or have an academic backgroundDrucker explains that only those who have earned the trust of others for their day-to-day work deserve the name of the leaderThere is no leader in a corpse of an organization.

② Leadership is a job, not a quality

“The primary requirement for leadership is to see leadership as a job.”



“Leadership is not about attracting people. It’s just an inspiring quality. It’s not about making friends and influencing people. It’s just salesmanship.”



According to Drucker, leader requirements are not qualities or charisma, but those who can see leadership as a job.

I thought that meaningful leadership was “thinking about the mission of an organization and establishing it in a visible way.” Leadership is to be presented to clearly members of the mission of the organization, “set goals, and who continue to maintain its system to decide the criteria for priority with respect to the target” is the leader and description have been increased.

Drucker also requires leaders to become a code of conduct for their goals. Drucker’s second definition of leadership is that the person who accomplishes the job is the true leader, and that person’s actions are the leadership.

③ See leadership as responsibility, not status or privilege

“The second requirement of being a leader is to see leadership as a responsibility, not a position of privilege. A good leader is always tough. When things go wrong, and most of the time things go wrong, but that failed. Do not blame others. “



Drucker further develops leadership theory by quoting Truman’s words. Drucker quoted the phrase, “Ultimate responsibility lies with me

When working on a project as a team, the actions of subordinates are not all promised glory. Sometimes it can lead to unexpected mistakes. At such times, leaders must be prepared to take responsibility for the failure of their subordinates.

He does not feel distrustful or afraid of the power of his subordinates, but instead says, “I encourage my subordinates, move them forward, and take pride in myself .” When it comes to leadership, you may have the image of treating your subordinates with a high-pressure attitude and encouraging inspiration by repeating coercion, orders, and scolding.

However, Drucker sees leaders as being harmonious with the goal of the organization, but with the integrity that all responsibility lies with them.

Need for all members to take leadership

Leadership does not mean the top of the organization. Leadership should be seen as something that everyone in an organization can have.

Having all the members in leadership leads to thinking about and taking action on valuable goals toward the goals.

Rather than one charisma reigning, if all members of the organization have leadership, that is, if everyone exercises leadership in their own place, the quality of output can be overwhelmingly improved.

If everyone’s ideas and skills are demonstrated in the place, the accumulation will be the product of the organization as it is. Drucker was quick to discover that the ideas and skills of one charismatic person were known

2. Types of leadership theory and characteristics of each type

What is leadership?
Leadership

Now that Drucker’s definition of leadership has given us a rough idea of ​​how to think about leadership, let’s consider the types and classifications of leadership. Leadership is categorized by several theories. Let’s look at five theories.

What is concept theory?

Concept theory is a theory that focuses on specific methods of leadership according to the business environment, organizational conditions, membership, and other situations. Although it is premised on a condition-based theory, the following are some of the leadership methods that represent the theory.

  1. Charismatic leadership
  2. Transformable leadership
  3. EQ type leadership
  4. Facilitation-type leadership
  5. Servant leadership

① Charismatic leadership

Charismatic leadership is leadership that exerts extraordinary power. For example, the leadership demonstrated by former Apple CEO Steve Jobs and former Seven & i Holdings CEO Toshifumi Suzuki.

Present a clear vision and at the same time take risks. While realistically evaluating the environment, it has the characteristic of accurately responding to the needs and emotions of the members that make up the organization and showing understanding.

If charismatic leadership works, leaders will have the power to push companies to the top of the industry.

However, keep in mind that there are some issues. Employees lose their independence if they settle for strong leadershipRelying on leaders will cast a big shadow on the issue of developing the next generation of leadersIf the difference in ability becomes pressure, it will be difficult for the successor to grow up .

② Transformational leadership

Transformational leadership is symbolized by news such as “corporate performance has recovered in a V shape.” Transformable leadership is demonstrated when a company facing a financial crisis recovers through bold reforms.

We will foster a sense of crisis within the organization and build a new vision for the company based on it. Create an organization for change and encourage voluntary activities within the organization. This will bring small successes early on, and the accumulation of those successes will restore the company’s performance.

“Leadership is the ability to change, and management is the ability to manage,” said John Kotter, a professor at Harvard Business School, an authority on leadership theory.

In modern society, there are many leaders who are good at management, but the lack of leaders who have the ability to bring about change is a problem.

③ EQ type leadership

EQ-type leadership is leadership in which the leader himself works on the emotions and motivations of the members of the organization and steers in a positive directionIt can be said to be effective leadership when you want to raise the mindset of the organization and move the organization well with teamwork.

EQ-type leadership begins with the leader understanding one’s emotions, controlling one’s emotions, and progressing to understanding others.

Members who understand others, control their actions on others’ emotions and have them understand their emotions have loyalty to their leaders and are enthusiastic about their dutiesAs a result, it is a form of leadership that brings great benefits to corporate performance.

When Fumiko Hayashi, the current mayor of Yokohama, was the chairman of Daiei, she demonstrated leadership in the form of complimenting and admitting employees.

④ Facilitation-type leadership

There is facilitation-type leadership that solicits the voluntary opinions of many members. A leader is not a leader of an organization, but a neutral position with no hierarchical relationship.

Facilitation type leadership is, for example, to maximize the members of opinion in the act, such as listening and questions such as “What would you like to do if you?” “I wonder if think What would you?” I. One of the characteristics of the organization is that the members independently discuss all the issues of the organization, gather their opinions, and take action.

The method of Yoshiharu Hoshino of Hoshino Resorts, which has succeeded in resort management all over Japan, applies exactly to this facilitation-type leadership.

By maximizing facilitation and listening repeatedly without using one’s position or authority, we have transformed into a large company that develops resorts all over Japan.

⑤ Servant-type leadership

A servant is a servant. Servant leadership is leadership in which a leader leads a team while acting as a servantThe leader makes the final decision on settings such as mission and vision.

In the actual action process, the leader is dedicated to supporting the members of the organization, and the members try to satisfy the customer with the support of the leader. The pyramid-shaped upper layer provides support to the lower layer, creating a virtuous cycle for the business.

Morio Ikeda, who was president of Shiseido from 2001 to 2005, used this servant-type leadership to strengthen his organizational strength. A system has been created in which leaders assist sub-managers, sub-managers assist employees, and employees serve customers


What is PM theory? 

PM theory is a leadership theory advocated by Japanese sociologist Juji Misumi.

It consists of a combination of performance (task-related behavior Performance function) and maintenance (person-related behavior maintenance function), and the ideal leader is one that excels in bothThere are four combinations using the PM axis, so let’s take a look at each.

  1. PM
  2. Pm
  3. pM
  4. pm

① PM

PM maintains high levels of task-related behaviors as well as interpersonal-related behaviors and is considered to be an ideal leader who pays attention to human relationships while focusing on achieving goalsThere is a reason why the letters PM are capitalized.

When written in uppercase, it means that the effect is large, and when written in lowercase, it means that the power is weak.

P is,

  • Thorough guidance of members to keep the rules of the organization
  • Emphasis on scheduling and thorough progress management

And so on.

M is,

  • Actively participate as a coordinator when there is a disagreement
  • Respond widely to voice and guidance so that members can achieve their own tasks

It refers to such actions. You can see that not only the ability to achieve results as an organization but also the ability to organize the organization is strong.

② Pm

A Pm is a leader who focuses on achieving goals, but is largely involved in and does not care about relationships within the organization.

You can see the characters from the fact that the letter P for achieving the goal is uppercase and them for interpersonal behavior is lowercase.

There are two necessary factors about how to greatly increase the power of P.

  1. By presenting a clear goal and giving a concrete image of the course to reach it, and clarifying the goal to reach and the map up to that point, you will be much closer to achieving the goal.
  2. Thorough action toward the goal No matter how much the map is, taking a detour or walking like a turtle will not produce any results.

It is necessary to raise awareness by committing each action within the organization and creating many opportunities to be aware of goals.

③ pM

pM is literally a type of behavioral theory that focuses more on relationships within a group than on the outcome of achieving goalsThe elements required for the ability to extend M are two interpersonal compositions within the organization.

  1. Boss and organizational members Specific measures such as regular personal interviews and voice calls from superiors
  2. Setting up meetings where members of the organization can freely exchange opinions, etc.

The force to achieve the targets and there is a beyond part, not be in the immediate use as a company, but is a pattern to become well-ventilated in the organization, if the wait for the maturity of the organization, is also likely to produce some result hidden I am.

④pm

pm is characterized by weakness in both goal achievement and interpersonal behaviorIt is a pattern of leaders who are reluctant to achieve goals and adjust relationships, which is a big problem for the organization.

It is often regarded as meaningless as a leader, and it will be difficult for people with such leadership to stay in that position for a long time.

Companies are working every day with the aim of achieving performance and achieving their management goals, and smooth organizational management is essential for that purpose. It must be said that it is fatal for a company to be unable to exert its power in both.

It is a zone that is considered to be avoided only belonging to this position in the four patterns of PM, Pm, pM, and pm.

What is Levin’s leadership type?

American psychologist Kurt Lewin’s theory of leadership was the result of experimenting with the effectiveness of leadership in children. Levin’s leadership theory is divided into three patterns.

  1. Tyranny
  2. Laissez-faire leadership
  3. Democratic leadership

① Tyranny

Tyranny is a pattern in which leaders make all decisions, such as goal setting, work processes, and schedule management, on the premise that subordinates and organizations move only by giving orders.

Organizations can perform tasks efficiently directed by tyrannical leadership, resulting in quick results in terms of workload and performance, and high productivity in a short period of time.

But what about the maturity of the organization? An exhausted and hollow organization is created in which members feel distrustful and take no action without instructions.

Tyranny can only be effective in organizations that are immature and unable to move safely on their own, or in cases where there is a high degree of urgency and the situation must be dealt with together.

② Laissez-faire leadership

Laissez-faire leadership is simply leadership that is left to the subordinates. No leader is involved in the work process or schedule management regarding the actions to be taken by subordinates and groups, and the organization is managed in a free-thinking and free-spirited manner.

Laissez-faire leadership is successful only if each member is able to work with a high degree of expertise and at a high level as a group . Specifically, think of a research and development department where researchers with specialized fields gather.

In a group of professionals, the ability of the individual can be maximized, and the effectiveness of laissez-faire leadership can be fully demonstrated.

However, there is no doubt that general organizations lack cohesiveness as an organization and their motivation tend to declineIn many cases, neither the quantity nor quality of work can be expected.

③ Democratic leadership

Democratic leadership is a pattern that incorporates the opinions of members into issues that must be decided by the organization, such as policies and goals, and leaves the specific work procedures to the discretion of the members.

When setting goals for an organization, we will actively incorporate the opinions of members, and friendship and cooperation will be created among the members, and the awareness of working toward the same goals will grow.

Furthermore, the action plan is left to the discretion of each member. Productivity may often be lower than tyrannical leadership due to the increased motivation of each individual.

However, from a long-term perspective, the maturity of the organization will increase, and it will be possible to create a corporate culture in which the entire company works as one to tackle corporate management issues.

What is management system theory? (Likert)

Rensis Likert, director of the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, established management system theory. In a study of field supervisors, we theorized the correlation between the performance of a management organization and the motivation of its members. This theory, which regards an organization as a system, consists of four patterns.

  1. Authoritarian and tyrannical
  2. Warm and tyrannical
  3. Participation cooperation type
  4. Democratic type

① Authoritarianism/despotism

Authoritarian and tyrannical types are thoroughly task-oriented, and the subject of control is the leaderLeaders and organizational members rarely interact with each other, and control functions are in the hands of leaders. An authoritarian management method that values ​​authority from ancient times, leaders become absolute.

Not only are members not allowed to make any decisions, but they are also forced to work by intimidation, punishment, etc., and receive very little reward.

It is a pattern of leadership theory that is rarely seen in modern society, but in organizations that are not mature or in organizations where the one-man president reigns, which is often seen in small and medium-sized enterprises, this authoritarian / despot type In some cases, the leadership of the company remains deeply rooted.

② Warm and tyrannical

The leader is the main body of control in the warm-hearted and tyrannical type. Unlike authoritarian and tyrannical leadership, leaders have a warm heart.

Leaders are kind and have some compassion and trust in their membersIt is also a feature that the discretion of the members is allowed within a certain range.

But in many decisions, leaders take the leadSometimes they motivate members with flickering rewards and punishments. From the perspective of achieving your goals, you will get some results under a tyrannical leader. However, relationships within the organization are weak and fragile.

③ Participation cooperation type

Participatory and collaborative leadership is largely controlled by organizational membersThe interaction between members will become more active to some extent, and the effect of interaction can be expected. Discretionary delegation to organizational members is more characteristic than leader authority.

In this case, the task-oriented approach to achieving the goal and the human relationship-oriented approach to building relationships within the organization can be regarded as about the same .

Leaders have only basic policies and overall decision-making power, other individual cases are delegated individually, and subordinates actively take action to achieve their goals while communicating with them based on the trust of the leader. .. Depending on the situation, punishment may be used, but the relationships within the organization, such as leaders and members, and members, will be maintained well.

④ Democracy type

The governing body of democratic leadership is the members of the organization . Evaluation and governance are entirely delegated by leaders at all levels . Rather than being task-oriented to achieve the company’s goals, the relationship-oriented state that emphasizes relationships within the organization is increasing.

In order for leaders to fully trust the members of the organization, active communication is carried out up, down, left and right, and all members work on goal setting, process construction, action plan creation, and so on.

It is also characterized by very high motivation , and a wide range of interactions creates a virtuous cycle . Members will have a comfortable working environment as they operate the organization to maximize the benefits of democracy.

However, it is possible that the desire to achieve goals may decline, so it is always necessary to draw a line as to how much the company will tolerate it .

What is the managerial grid theory? (Break & Mouton)

The managerial grid theory was popularized by the co-sponsorship of Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, professors at the University of Texas. In the behavior theory that analyzed the behavior in leadership in a style, five patterns were derived from the two concerns of “interest in people (degree of human interest)” and “interest in achievement (degree of interest in achievement)” .

  1. 1.1 type (passive type)
  2. Type 1.9 (human-centered type)
  3. 9.1 type (work-centered type)
  4. 9.9 type (ideal type)
  5. 5.5 type (moderate type)

① 1.1 type (passive type)

The 1.1 type is a pattern with low human interest and performance interest . Leaders are indifferent to things like subordinates and team goals and tend to avoid the responsibilities that arise at work .

It is a state in which leadership as a leader is not functioning in a sense because it often behaves in a self-defensive manner and takes an open-minded attitude toward subordinates. You will only work on a given job, which will be less successful as you are less likely to pursue better results.

The presence of leaders in the workplace is weak, and there is no control as an organization, and the whole is in a collapsed state. Far from achieving the goals of a company, it creates a crisis situation that threatens even its existence as an organization .

② Type 1.9 (human-centered type)

Type 1.9 is a pattern with very high human interest but low-performance interestIt refers to human-centered organizational management that values ​​teamwork within the organization and listens to the opinions of members, even at the expense of corporate performance and organizational goals.

Communication between leaders, subordinates, and members is close and relationships are good, but it ends up in an organization like a group of friends .

From the perspective of corporate management, which is a for-profit organization that demands business performance and achievements, this is a serious problem. Certainly, a workplace that is physically and mentally stable is indispensable for the growth of a company. However, if you focus only on that, management will not be possible, and as a result, you will not be able to guarantee the lives of the members.

③ 9.1 type (work-centered type)

Type 9.1 is a pattern in which the degree of interest in human performance is very high while the degree of interest in human beings is low . Leadership created by so-called work-centric thinking, where leaders focus their utmost efforts on achieving corporate goals and organizational goals, even at the expense of the people in the organization.

Leaders pull the organization with strong top-down governance, as job performance and maximization of performance are the sole concerns. Organizations that work under power leaders will be able to achieve certain results and achievements.

However , there is no communication or consideration in the workplace, and there is a lack of perspectives such as training subordinates, so the maturity of the organization does not remain, and in the worst case, members may be separated from the organization.

④ 9.9 type (ideal type)

Type 9.9 is called the ideal form in the managerial grid theory, and it is a pattern in which the organization is operated with a high degree of interest in humans and achievements .

While having a high awareness of issues such as corporate performance and organizational goals, we also pay the utmost attention to relationships within the organization. When leaders pay attention to the members of the organization and communicate closely, mutual trust develops.

As a result, members strive to achieve their organization’s goals while growing themselves with the dedicated support of their leaders.

Everything is done in a friendly and collaborative way, so you’ll get reasonably good results . Having an ideal leader who also has a sense of balance is the reason why it is considered ideal in the managerial grid theory.

⑤ 5.5 type (moderate type)

Type 5.5 is a pattern in which both human interest and performance interest are mediumYou might think that medium is half-hearted but think of it as one of the well-balanced leadership with no prominence.

Leaders are reasonably interested in the members of the organization. Since we communicate within a reasonable range, the burden on the members will be small .

We also have an appropriate awareness of the goals of companies and organizations. Take action on what you need to do and what you need to do to achieve your goals and proceed with the projectProblems such as overwork are a form of compromised leadership that is unrelated and can produce reasonable results within a reasonable range .

What is SL theory? (Hercy & Blanchard)

The SL (Situational Leadership Theory) theory was proposed by Hercy and Blanchard in 1977We developed the leadership condition conformity theory based on the correlation between “maturity of subordinates” and “leadership of managers”.

SL theory is composed of four categories according to the strength of “work-oriented” and “human-oriented”, and in each category, the strength of guidance for instruction decision, the effectiveness of leadership such as persuasive/participatory style, etc. It is showing.

  1. M1: Directive type
  2. M2: Persuasive type
  3. M3: Participatory
  4. M4: Delegated type

① M1: Directive type

M1 is an instruction type and has the characteristics that the degree of instruction is high and the degree of cooperation is lowIn this case, the leader is considered to be someone who is familiar with the know-how of achieving goals. Naturally, members of the organization rely on leaders.

I hope this works effectively, but one-sided instructions to the members sometimes lead to repulsions such as distrust and discomfortThe risk of running an organization is high, as it can be perceived as having only immediate, so-called short-term outlooks and interests.

② M2: Persuasive type

M2 is a persuasive type, with a high degree of instruction and a high degree of cooperationIt seems as if they are giving social solidarity direction through team play that not only works hard for the success of the project, such as goal setting and work organization but also meets the needs of the team.

On the other hand, enthusiastic work instructions can sometimes be more intervention than necessary and can make members feel uncomfortableThere are many scenes where the teamwork and the sense of trust with the members that we have built up are thought to be acts only on the upper side without sincerity.

As it is a persuasive type, this pattern is characterized by the attitude of working as a leader to achieve goals while communicating so that the consent of the other party can be obtained.

③ M3: Participatory type

M3 is participatory, with a low degree of instruction and a high degree of cooperationLeaders have an implicit trust in the members of the organization, and by entrusting them to the members in a trusting relationship, they promote the achievement of their goals.

The basic idea is “we”, and maintaining “was” is the most important point. I’m extremely afraid of situations where relationships are terrible and my image of being a “trustworthy leader” collapses, so I tend to value “was” even at the expense of work.

For companies, it is commendable that they maintain the spirit of “Wa”, but it cannot be overlooked that sometimes they cannot commit to the results of their work.

④ M4: Delegated type

M4 is a delegation type, and it is a pattern in which both instructions and cooperation are maintained at a low level. Despite the challenges of maintaining good teamwork as a leader and achieving organizational goals, it seems as if they are leaving everything to the members of the organization and abandoning their social responsibilities. It is a leader image.

Leaving it to the members of the organization, that is, not doing any bad interference, may create a stretchy movement inside the organization.

However,

  • Organize the work you need
  • Creating an action plan
  • Manage progress

It is unavoidable to be seen as neglecting to provide such social solidarity instructionsTissue maturity is also considered to be the lowest of the four patterns.

3. 3. Specific skills and actions for leadership

What is leadership?
Leadership

John Adair is a leader in organizational leadership in the United Kingdom. It is also well known for its three-circle “behavior-centric leadership” model. Adair’s ideas are of great interest because they are practical and applicable to all leaders, regardless of occupation or industry.

Action-Centred Leadership

Behavior-centric leadership has been integrated into many corporate cultures for over 30 years and has been used as an individual leadership style.

The behavior-centric leadership model is a very simple and practical model. It is drawn with three overlapping circles, and each of the three circles represents a “work (task),” “team,” and “individual .” The leader is responsible for working on these three circles.

Adair

  • Do the job
  • Build and maintain a team
  • Develop individual (subordinate) abilities

I thought that making these efforts was a component of leadership. The reason was quite simple.

Everyone wants their leaders to “help them get the job done,” “create teamwork,” and “meet their individual needs .”

Leadership 8 functional actions

Adair’s leadership is to meet each need by working on three aspects: “work,” “team,” and “individual.” In addition, Adair describes eight functions that leaders must perform.

  1. Clarify the work
  2. To plan
  3. explain
  4. Control
  5. evaluate
  6. Motivate
  7. Organize
  8. To model

① Clarify the work

One of Adair’s eight functions is to “clarify the work.”

He states that it is necessary to clearly present work goals to teams and individuals, and above all, to SMART.

What is SMART?

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Time Constrained

Each is an acronym. Presenting SMART is an essential requirement for the performance of leadership.

② Plan

Next is “planning”.

Adair requires leaders not only to plan for the tasks they need to accomplish but also to have multiple alternatives at the planning stage.

For this reason,

  • It is necessary to create a friendly atmosphere by teaming up with organizational members
  • On top of that, we will come up with constructive and original methods together.
  • Planning for unforeseen circumstances

Etc. are mentioned. It is important to assume different cases.

③ Explain

The next thing Adair says is to “explain to the team.”

By describing the action plan for goal-setting and achievement to the team, and progress, share information you will be prompted.

The atmosphere of teams with the same values ​​is very good and teamwork is more facilitated. It will be easier for you to reach your goals because you work in the same directionAt the same time, individual motivation is increased, so it can be said that it is a leadership function of two birds with one stone.

④ Control

The concept of “control” also appears in the function of carrying out leadership.

Adair wrote in his book Leadership Techniques that “a good leader produces maximum output with minimum input .” For that purpose, of course, self-control of the members themselves is important, but it is necessary to make the control system such as effective delegation to subordinates and command and supervision ability function.

Adair also attaches great importance to the aspect of “control” in leadership.

⑤ Evaluate

At Adair, leadership is not limited to business instructions, but to “evaluate” the results.

The leader evaluates the achievements and processes of the team based on the results obtained and assesses the role of the individualGuidance may be given based on the results of the evaluation.

Leaders are also required to have the ability to properly assess team personnel. In other words, if you are not good at assessing human abilities, you will not be able to demonstrate leadership and you will not be able to work as a leader.

⑥ Motivate

Leaders are also required to be “motivated”. There are eight laws to motivate. The laws are as follows.

  1. Motivate yourself
  2. Select highly motivated people
  3. Treat each person as an individual
  4. Set realistic and challenging goals
  5. Keep in mind that progress is motivation
  6. Create a motivational environment
  7. Reward fairly
  8. Admit

Leaders need to carry out motivation according to these eight laws .

⑦ Organize

Leaders must also work on organizing the organization. Good leaders need to be able to systematize the team they lead, including the right organizational structure and processes.

You need a clear purpose and effective command to act as a team and achieve results such as achieving your team’s goalsOrganization to create a command system is also an essential item.

In addition, the organization does not have to be formed once, but it is necessary to flexibly review it when changing operations or policies.

⑧ Set an example

It is also a mission for leaders to set an example by themselves as an example.

There is an aspect in every world where subordinates grow up by seeing the leader. Leaders are required to set norms not only for each member but for the entire organization.

Bad swatches are easy to see, but it takes time for good swatches to penetrate individuals and teams. You will need to be patient and show positive codes until a good code of conduct permeates your team.

4. What is a new leadership concept, Authentic Leadership?

Let me also introduce the new leadership concept “Authentic Leadership” 

One of the proponents is Bill George, a former CEO of Medtronic. In his book Mission Leadership (2004), he states that “CEOs need ethics and morals.”

As a condition of the leader

  1. I have a solid understanding of my purpose
  2. Act based on solid values
  3. Lead with all your heart
  4. Build strong relationships
  5. Firmly control yourself

And five are listed.

Also in “Glovis MBA Leadership” (Glovis Graduate School of Management, Diamond)

Authentic leadership is

  1. Have a solid sense of purpose and stay true to your core values
  2. Dedicated to building a lasting organization with a high degree of integrity
  3. Understand the importance of serving society with the spirit to build a company that meets the needs of all stakeholders

5. Difference between management and leadership

Leadership is often misunderstood as if it were synonymous with management. However, they are completely different concepts.

Leadership is a term defined in the book “Professional Conditions” by business scholar Drucker. And the management was also created in Drucker’s book “Management”. By returning to the definition of each Drucker, the difference can be clarified.

Drucker’s Definition of Management Manager

  • Management: Tools, functions, and institutions that help organizations achieve results
  • Manager: Responsible for the outcome of the organization

Drucker’s Definition of Leadership Leader

  • Leadership: Thinking through the mission of an organization and clearly establishing it in a visible way
  • Leader: A person who sets goals, prioritizes, sets standards, and maintains them

Summary of the differences between leadership and management

Management is a concept centered on “organizational achievements” and leadership is a concept centered on “organizational mission”. Achievements mainly refer to business outcomes that appear concretely as numbers, such as sales. It also includes things that contribute to increasing the power of the organization, such as human resources development, even if they cannot be visualized as numbers.

Leadership is about clarifying the direction of the organization. Simply put, it’s about “setting and pulling a team’s goals,” and it’s a completely different concept from producing results.

6. Training methods to enhance leadership

We’ve looked at leadership in many ways, including the definition and importance of leadership, but finally, let’s think about ways to improve it. How should leadership be developed?


Step1. Rethink the meaning and definition of leadership

In an era when leadership was considered a “characteristic born of possession,” identifying people with unique characteristics was a top priority. But now, leadership has changed to the definition of the ability of any person.

By developing the ability of leadership

  • The shortcut to achieving the goal is for everyone in the organization to exercise leadership and work.
  • Restructuring of leadership development mechanism is required

As such it to rethink fundamentally the meaning and definition of leadership once again raise the leadership will lead to.

Step2. Decide when to start leadership development

Leadership development begins as soon as possible, which is another way to improve leadership. If you start developing skills from a young age before you reach an authoritative position within your organization, true leadership that does not rely on authority will take root individually.

  • aim setting
  • Sharing goals and processes
  • Take the initiative
  • Norms
  • support

By allocating many people to the organization who have acquired the elements that are the keywords of leadership at an early stage, the entire organization can be surely evolvedIt will also increase the motivation of individuals and organizations. The key is how quickly you can develop your skills.

Step3. Build a development program

The point of leadership development programs is to be practical and logical.

Skills in business are skills that can only be put to practical use. Of course, it is also necessary to get a first-hand feel of the practical aspects of leadership through projects.

However, that alone is not enough to establish the skill. It is necessary to set up opportunities such as lectures, group work, and pair sessions to delve into the problems and issues that were felt in practice, and to learn the judgmental thinking ability regarding leadership.

It is a good idea to build a program where you can learn both practical and logical skills in a period of about 3 years.

Step4. Encourage individuals to recognize themselves

You can make use of leadership in your organization by knowing what you are. In other words, what kind of strengths and weaknesses you have, and how you can make use of them to demonstrate leadership while acting in your own way within the organization. It is a way to think about it.

Repeated self-awareness will give you more room for self-acceptance. And if we can understand that “there is no perfect human being like Superman”, it will feed the soil of acceptance of others. Leadership sprouts are born in the soil where each team member can accept himself and recognize others.

Step5. Encourage individuals to take leadership actions

Leadership development is something that cannot be done overnight. Even if you seek the ideal leadership from the beginning, it is difficult for individuals and organizations to do so.

  • Make part of the project discretionary
  • Leave the construction of the process to the goal
  • Entrust the adjustment of the schedule

Let’s cultivate leadership from small accumulations. The entrusted subordinates can take responsibility for tackling the issues, and the boss can feel more secure that he/she can believe in his / her subordinatesDeveloping leadership skills while building mutual trust one by one is also a shortcut for leadership development.

Step6. Instill “leadership by everyone”

An organization is a group of individuals, but if there is even one person who lacks the idea of ​​leadership, the gears will go crazy. In other words, it is important to instill a sense of leadership among all members of the organization.

To that end, we will incorporate leadership into the goals and action guidelines of the organization, and incorporate situations in which leadership can be demonstrated in concrete action plans.

By doing so, the behavioral transformation will be promoted smoothly, leadership will naturally be demonstrated by the entire organization, and the leadership abilities of all organizations will be developed efficiently.

Step7. Redefine the manager role

People in leadership positions, such as managers, tend to convey instructions from their superiors to their subordinates and control whether they can act faithfully as instructed. However, that does not develop leadership skills. For leaders, the real role is to develop the leadership skills of their subordinates.

  • Make subordinates think for themselves
  • Give everyone in the organization the opportunity to think
  • Watch the execution of the process that you think about
  • Give praise and advice to actions to achieve your own tasks

This is the role of the leader. You will need to redefine the manager role.

Step8. Create an organizational culture that facilitates leadership

In fact, leadership is born every day in various organizations within a company. However, there are cases in which the buds of leadership that has sprouted with great effort die because there is no organizational culture to turn them into large trees.

Rather than developing skills at each level within an organization where the hierarchy is rampant, create an open organizational culture and corporate culture that allows leadership to be demonstrated across organizations and departments, as well as the entire organization with new employees, mid-career employees, and managers. It is important to create.

Recognize that the correct evaluation of each employee will help you achieve your goals .

Step9. Create an organizational culture that enhances mutual leadership

PDCA is required for any project. PDCA is also indispensable for leadership development.

Planning and practicing skill development gimmicks, considering the results, and giving feedback are the best ways to enhance each other’s leadership .

We cannot give feedback in a negative organizational culture such as “I can’t say it because I’m my boss” or “I can’t say it because it destroys the atmosphere”.

An organizational culture in which everyone in the organization can open their hearts and freely talk about “bosses to subordinates,” “colleagues,” “subordinates to bosses,” results that should be praised, and problems that need to be improved. Let’s build.

7. Leadership skills of well-known managers and specific examples

What is leadership?
Leadership

From the past to the present, a variety of talented leaders have demonstrated their management skills and leadership.

Learning the leadership styles and hearts of prominent leaders can help you understand what they are. Here, we will introduce the anecdotes of the three business owners.

① Kazuo Inamori’s leadership theory

Introducing the leadership theory of Mr. Kazuo Inamori, the manager who founded Kyocera and KDDI and led JAL (Japan Airlines) to revitalization.

“Leaders must always be humble. Only humble leaders can build collaborative groups and lead them to harmonious and lasting success.”

A leader is not a forceful pull on a team. Inamori’s view of leadership is based on humility.

For example, not many leaders can listen to their subordinates and admit their mistakes. A leader who can throw away unnecessary pride and lead the group well can be said to be a successful leader.

② Ability required of leaders spoken by Konosuke Matsushita

Konosuke Matsushita, the founder of the Panasonic (former Matsushita Electric Industrial) Group and the founder of the PHP Institute.

Mr. Matsushita emphasized the importance of having an honest heart with the slogan “Let’s be an honest heart. An honest heart will make you strong, correct and intelligent” in PHP activities. That attitude is also reflected in his leadership style.

“The essence of human beings cannot be changed. It is impossible to make various efforts to change it. Rather, it will hurt human beings themselves. Therefore, the essence of human beings first sees this as it is. Must-have.

Then, think about what should be done on that basis. That is important. This is true for everything, not just humans. But in reality, it’s hard to do that. Perhaps I see the feelings of like or dislike, or the things that are caught in my own interests, in a convenient way.

In that case, you can only see a figure that is far from the truth. That would make it impossible to make a correct decision, and the result would be a mistake. Therefore, leaders must try to be as free as possible and see things as they are. Only with such recognition as it is will appropriate guidance be born. “

Proper leadership in an organization requires looking at and accepting things as they are. Let’s look at the essence of human beings regardless of personal feelings and interests.

③ Leadership style that Soichiro Honda showed on his back

Mr. Soichiro Honda, the founder of Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Honda), has been active as an engineer from the beginning.

However, as the times change, Mr. Honda’s technology becomes obsolete and gradually conflicts with the opinions of young engineers who have acquired the latest technology. Mr. Takeo Fujisawa, Vice President, throws at Mr. Honda, who has a high pride as an engineer.

“Are you going to be the president of Honda Motor Co., Ltd. or will you remain as an engineer? Should you choose between them?”

After hearing this, Mr. Honda was silent for a while and then

“I should be the president”

I said and withdrew from the field of the engineering department. In this way, Honda decided to introduce new technology.

It was a situation where leaders were testing the ability to make decisions for the company and the team as a whole, not for personal pride. It can be seen that Mr. Honda’s leadership was based on humility and appropriate situational judgment.

8. Improve your leadership skills! Recommended books

To improve individual leadership, it is important to acquire knowledge and deepen its understanding. Learn about different types of leadership and learn what you need to know as a leader and the skills you need.

Introducing books that can be widely studied, from leadership ideas to practical knowledge.

“How to move people”

Although the first edition is as old as 1937, it is a book by Dale Carnegie that has long been read as a bestseller to this day. While introducing the anecdotes of historical leaders such as Lincoln and Roosevelt, he talks about the essence of human beings and important viewpoints for taking leadership.

As the title “Move people”, the elements that you should be aware of when actually moving people’s minds and actions are explained in an easy-to-understand manner. How to take leadership is also briefly summarized with many examples. It’s very easy to read, so it’s the first book for beginners who want to learn leadership.

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