Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Treatment and Prevention

Diabetes mellitus, a type of diabetes, is probably one of the most well-known chronic diseases in the world – and it makes sense that this could be the case. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests in the United States alone, 30.3 million people, or 9.4 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes, and most of these people have type 2. up arrow.

Of those with diabetes, 7.2 million are unaware that they have it, and an increasing number of teens are diagnosed with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. , including heart disease and certain types of cancer. sing up arrow

What Is Type 2 Diabetes? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
Type 2 Diabetes

Whether you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or have a family history of the disease, this condition and the risk of complications may be alarming. And with the necessary changes in diet and lifestyle, there is no doubt that this diagnosis may be challenging to consider.

But living with type 2 diabetes should not be a pain. In fact, once you have been educated about the disease – such as understanding how insulin resistance occurs and how to reduce it, being able to recognize the symptoms of diabetes, and learning what to eat – you can use the resources you need to lead. a happy, healthy life.

Indeed, a study published in December 2017 in the journal BMJ suggested that you may even be able to relieve type 2 diabetes by making changes in your diet and lifestyle. The ketogenic carb diet as a treatment for the management of type 2 diabetes, noted a review published in September 2018 in the Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism.

In addition, there is growing evidence that a single strategy – bariatric surgery – can completely reverse type 2 diabetes.

In this article, take a closer look at this information and more. Sit back, move on, and get ready to manage type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

In the early stages of the disease, type 2 diabetes usually shows no symptoms at all, according to a previous study. Mayo Clinic:

  • Frequent urination and extreme thirst
  • Sudden or unexpected weight loss
  • Increased hunger
  • Seeing is blurred
  • Dark, soft spots on the skin (called acanthosis nigricans)
  • Fatigue
  • The wounds will not heal

If you have one or more risk factors for type 2 diabetes and you notice any of these symptoms, it is a good idea to call your doctor, as you may have type 2 diabetes.

Causes and Dangers of Type 2 Diabetes 2

Researchers do not know what causes type 2 diabetes, but they do believe that there are a number of factors involved. Those factors include genetics and lifestyle, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).
The origin of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, and prior to diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, you may be diagnosed with prediabetes, notes NIDDK.

Insulin resistance

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar that your body can lower on its own, according to NIDDK. High blood sugar is called hyperglycemia; Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar.

Insulin – a hormone that allows your body to regulate blood sugar – is made in your pancreas. In fact, insulin resistance is a condition in which the body’s cells do not use insulin properly. As a result, it takes more insulin than usual to transfer blood sugar (sugar) to cells, so that it can be used for fuel faster or stored for later use. Decreased glucose uptake in cells creates a problem with cell function; Glucose is usually the fastest and most easily available source of energy in the body, notes NIDDK.

Insulin resistance, the agency points out, does not grow rapidly, and often, people with this condition do not show symptoms – which can make diagnosis difficult.
As the body becomes more resistant to insulin, the pancreas responds by releasing an increasing amount of insulin. This higher level of insulin in the blood is called hyperinsulinemia, according to NIDDK


Insulin resistance sends your pancreas into overdrive, and although it may not be able to cope with the body’s growing insulin requirement for a while, it limits your insulin production and eventually your blood sugar will rise – leading to prediabetes, pre-diabetes. for type 2 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes itself, according to NIDDK.
A diagnosis of prediabetes does not mean that you will have type 2 diabetes. Getting diagnosed early and changing your diet and lifestyle can help prevent your health from getting worse, adds the agency.

Are You at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes?

Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are some of the most common diseases in the world – completely affecting more than 100 million Americans, according to the CDC.
However, according to an article published in June 2016 in Current Cardiology Reports, researchers are still not entirely sure what genes are causing insulin resistance.

Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors

As mentioned, type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease. That means you can’t just stop eating sugar or start exercising to avoid improving this health condition.

Here are some factors that may contribute to your risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

Obesity or obesity puts you at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A body mass index (BMI) determines whether you are overweight or obese, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).

Bad Dietary Habits The American Diabetes Association (ADA) emphasizes that eating too many unhealthy foods can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. , and a low, nutritious diet can greatly increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. Foods and beverages to limit should include white bread, chips, cookies, cake, soda, and fruit juice. Food and drink priorities include fruit, vegetables, whole grains, water, and tea.
Harvard T.H. The Chan School of Public Health notes that watching too much (and too often) TV may increase your risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other disorders.

Not Getting Enough Exercise According to John Muir Health, just as body fat interacts with insulin and other hormones to affect the development of diabetes, so does muscle. in the body’s defense against insulin and type 2 diabetes.
Sleep Habits Sleep disorders can affect the body’s insulin balance and blood sugar by increasing the need for the pancreas, says the National Sleep Foundation.
Over time, this can lead to type 2 diabetes.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) According to some estimates, a woman diagnosed with PCOS – a hormone imbalance – is at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than her non-PCOS counterparts, according to a study published in August 2017 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. & Resistance to Metabolism. insulin and obesity are common in these health conditions.

Being Over 45 Years As you grow older, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, according to ADA.right up arrow But in recent years, an increasing number of children and adolescents have been diagnosed with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Is Type 2 Diabetes Genetic?
Depending on diet and lifestyle factors, your genetic makeup may affect your risk of type 2 diabetes, too.

The twins’ study supports this, according to an article published in December 2013 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. And having a diabetic relative maybe the data included in this paper suggest African Americans, Hispanics, or Latino Americans, as well as certain Native American groups, are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasians. four times more likely to develop the disease yourself.

Your nationality or race may be a factor in your risk of type 2 diabetes, and, as noted in an article published in December 2013 in Current Diabetes Reports.

How is Type 2 Diabetes diagnosed?

Getting a quick diagnosis is essential for the successful treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the January 2019 issue of Diabetes Care, the ADA recommends that you get tested for the disease every three years if you are 45 years or older and overweight.
To diagnose type 2 diabetes, your doctor may perform the following test for you, according to a Mayo Clinic.
Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test A1C is a two- to three-month average blood sugar level. Although A1C of 5.7 or less is normal, anything between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes and a study of 6.5 percent or more on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes.

Fasting Testing for Glucose This test involves giving a blood sample after fasting for eight hours, according to MedlinePlus. If you have a fasting blood sugar level of fewer than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL), your blood sugar levels are normal. However, says the Mayo Clinic, if you have one from 100 to 125 mg / dL, you have prediabetes, and if you have 126 mg/dL two different times, you have diabetes.
A1C and fast glucose are common tests used to diagnose diabetes, but if you are pregnant or have different hemoglobin, your doctor may use another method, such as:

  • Oral glucose tolerance tests
  • Random blood sugar testing

Type 2 Diabetes Forecast

Diabetes prognosis depends on a number of factors, including the severity of the disease, the severity of the disease, and genetic factors. If you have undiagnosed diabetes for a long time, there is a greater risk of complications such as heart disease and neuropathy, previous research has noted.
Unfortunately, people with diabetes tend to have a shorter lifespan than people without this condition, a previous study suggested. However, it is important to note that many previous studies preceded the advanced treatments available today. Do not despair, however. It doesn’t have to be math. Getting a diagnosis early can help you to improve your health and reduce your risk of complications.

Indeed, if you are careful to control your blood sugar by following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, taking prescribed medication, and losing weight, you may find that your quality of life is better with diabetes than before you were diagnosed.

Duration of type 2 diabetes

Although changes in diet and lifestyle, as well as oral medications and injections (such as insulin), may help control type 2 diabetes, the underlying incidence of insulin resistance cannot be cured.

Another way to lower blood sugar levels is to lose 5 to 7 percent of your body weight. In a national diabetes prevention program (DPP), participants who did this once and exercised for at least 150 minutes each week reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes by 58 percent, according to the CDC. The Harvard T.H. The Chan School of Public Health also notes that following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and losing extra pounds can improve your management of type 2 diabetes. Over time, you may need additional treatment and, with poor blood sugar control, maybe insulin better control. your blood sugar, according to Harvard.

Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia

If you have type 2 diabetes, you are at risk of getting high blood sugar and low blood sugar. Preventing these episodes requires knowing the symptoms, causes, and treatment options to get your blood sugar back to a healthy level.

Between meals, blood sugar levels in people without diabetes range from 70 to 100 mg/dL. After a meal, it may reach 120 to 130 mg/dL but it rarely exceeds 140 mg/dL, according to an article in Diabetes Self-Management.

But Mayo Clinic notes that if you have type 2 diabetes, your blood sugar levels can rise dramatically – up to 200, 300, or even 400 mg/dL and more – and will rise sharply unless you take the necessary steps to lower it.

High blood sugar does not always show symptoms, so it is important to check your blood sugar regularly, as shown by your doctor.

According to the ADA, symptoms of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Feeling tired and weak
  • Seeing is blurred
  • Feeling hungry, even after a meal

If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you can work with your doctor to create a treatment plan to keep it as close to a healthy distance as possible.

Even after you start treatment, you may occasionally have hyperglycemia.

Some of the reasons for high blood sugar include, according to the ADA:

  • Missing medication or taking medication at the wrong time or in the wrong doses
  • Eat large portions, especially foods high in carbohydrates than intended or expected
  • Not getting enough sleep
  • Coping with emotional stress
  • Great exercise
  • Having an infection or infection

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

Although low blood sugar is more common in people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes can also develop this condition, especially if they use insulin.

In people with diabetes, low blood sugar is considered to lower blood sugar levels below 70 mg/dL, according to MedlinePlus.

The Mayo Clinic warns that low blood sugar can occur if:

  • The supply of glucose in your body is used very quickly.
  • Glucose is released into the bloodstream very slowly.
  • There is too much insulin in your blood.

Although no two people will have exactly the same symptoms of blood sugar, there are common symptoms to be aware of, the ADA advises:

  • A sudden famine.
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • Excessive sweating (usually sudden and without checking the temperature).
  • Shivering or trembling.
  • Sudden feelings of anxiety.
  • Anger, mood swings, and sudden outbursts are not part of your normal behavior.
  • Confusion or inability to concentrate.
  • Weakness or drowsiness.
  • Seeing is blurred.
  • Vague language.
  • Sleep disturbances, which include night sweats, nightmares, sudden waking, and crying, or feelings of confusion when you wake up.
  • If hypoglycemia is not treated immediately, low blood sugar can cause life-threatening .complications, such as fainting or thirst, and even death.
  • People with diabetes may be hypoglycemic when:
  • Take their insulin or diabetes medication but then skip meals, drink, or eat too little.
  • Develop it as a result of other diabetes medications.
  • Exercise vigorously without eating enough.
  • Drink plenty of alcohol.

If you have type 2 diabetes, you may have had a discussion with your doctor about how to treat .low blood sugar.

If you feel your blood sugar is low, check your blood sugar to make sure your symptoms are related to hypoglycemia and not something else, like depression. Next, immediately use 15 to 20 grams (g) of simple carbohydrates, advising ADA.

Check your blood glucose level again after 15 minutes. If it is low, eat another 15 to 20 g of simple carbohydrates, according to the ADA.

Good sources of simple carbohydrates (digested and absorbed quickly) to treat hypoglycemia include:

  • Glucose tablets
  • Glucose gel
  • Ordinary juice or soda (not food)
  • Sugar, honey, or corn syrup
  • Dried
  • Solid sweets, jelly beans, or gumdrops

Family members, coworkers, and other people close to you should be taught how to use a glucagon injection in the event of a severe hypoglycemic event and you may not be able to do it yourself. According to the U.S., Food and Drug Administration (FDA), now available pre-filled syringe options (Gvoke) .and intranasal glucagon (Baqsimi)

Treatment Options and Medications for Type 2 Diabetes

If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you have a variety of treatment options available.

Medicine Options

For example, you may be given oral medication Glucophage (metformin), which can help lower blood sugar levels.

Although metformin is the first-line drug for people with type 2 diabetes, it is not the only drug you have.

Others include:

Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides This type of drug works by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors These drugs can help digest certain carbs, help prevent high blood sugar after a meal, noted an article published in November 2014 in Diabetes Self-Management.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) This group of drugs helps to increase insulin sensitivity, and stabilize blood sugar levels, according to Diabetes.co.uk.

GLP-1 Antagonists Diabetes
.co.uk also notes that this class of drugs helps increase insulin production in response to glucose and reduces glucose from being absorbed in the gut.

DPP-4 Inhibitors These drugs block the action of an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in preventing the body from breaking down GLP1, a hormone that increases insulin production in glucose and reduces glucose absorption in the gut, according to Diabetes. co. uk.

SGLT-2 Inhibitors These new drugs in comparison facilitate the release of glucose by urine by reducing the absorption of glucose in the kidneys, according to a December 2014 review of the Diabetes Therapy journal.

Different and complementary therapies

Without these treatments, managing diabetes effectively means taking the right approach: You will need a healthy diet, exercise, stress management, and adequate sleep, as all of these factors can affect your blood sugar levels.

While the Mayo Clinic notes that there are no other treatments that have been proven to lower blood sugar or put type 2 diabetes at remission, some people have found success with keto diet diets, as well as certain ingredients.

Consult your doctor if you prefer one of these options, especially if you are taking medication or insulin.


Staying healthy with diabetes also requires that you take care of yourself – such as protecting your feet, oral hygiene, and paying attention to your mental health.

According to an article published in June 2014 in Current Diabetes Reports, having diabetes doubles your risk of depression, and yet health care providers often miss out on this individual diagnosis.

Getting peer support is one of the most effective ways to manage your mental health, and your overall health, with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in August 2015 in the Annals of Family Medicine.

Insulin options for type 2 diabetes

If you are unable to control your blood sugar with oral or non-insulin medications, diet, and lifestyle, you may need to add basal or bolus insulin to your treatment plan.

Here is how he differs:

Basal Insulin This type of insulin helps control your blood sugar when you are in the middle of a meal or at night when you sleep, notes Johns Hopkins.

Bolus Insulin This type of insulin works fast or fast. You usually take it before meals, according to Diabetes.co.uk.

Bariatric Surgery and Type 2 Diabetes

Bariatric surgery is another treatment option if you are managing type 2 diabetes, according to a review published in February 2019 in Diabetes Care. right up arrow individuals.

Type Diabetes Diet: What Can You Eat?

If you have diabetes, it is important to avoid eating lightly packaged, minced foods, such as cookies, chips, cake, granola bars, and so on, instead of fresh, whole foods, such as tasty fruits,

vegetables, and whole grains. , according to the Mayo Clinic. Eating a high-fiber diet can help keep blood sugar levels stable and full, which can promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity, according to a previous meta-analysis.

Monitoring your calorie intake may be helpful if you are overweight, but everyone with type 2 diabetes should keep track of how many carbohydrates they are eating. That can be difficult because carbohydrates are in the most common foods you can already eat, but there are.

both good and bad sources of carbohydrates. Fruits and vegetables, for example, are good sources, while pretzels and cookies are bad sources.

Eating is as important as what you eat when controlling diabetes. Adherence to a regular diet can help keep your blood sugar stable, notes Mayo Clinic.

Also, be aware that being diagnosed with diabetes does not mean that you cannot eat your favorite foods. Diabetes is a healthy diet for everyone!

You can work with a registered dietitian-nutritionist (RDN) to come up with a personal diet plan, and make sure you keep track of your blood sugar when you introduce new foods to your diet.

While there is no such thing as a “diabetic diet,” dieting can play an important role in controlling your blood sugar.

Diet Tips for Type 2 Diabetes

What to Eat

  • Starchy vegetables (asparagus, broccoli, and
  • bell pepper)
  • Fiber-rich fruits (berries, cherries and apricots)
  • Whole grains (quinoa, brown rice, and whole wheat bread)
  • Beans and vegetables
  • Healthy fats (avocados, nuts, and olive oil)

Things to Avoid

  • “White” food (white pasta, rice and bread)
  • Potato chips
  • Cookies and cake
  • Bacon and fatty cuts of meat
  • Sodium-rich foods (soup set, microwave food)

If you are interested in a specific diet plan, consider working with RDN and a certified diabetes educator (CDE) who can help you navigate the country.

The Mediterranean diet, which focuses on eating fish, olive oil, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, has the potential to help manage type 2 diabetes, according to a previous study.

Low-carb diets are also common, which can also help people with type 2 diabetes because carb counts can be an effective tool to control blood sugar, according to the ADA.

Keto Diet for type 2 diabetes: Does It Work?

One of the most common ways people with type 2 diabetes try to lower their blood sugar by significantly reducing their intake of carbs. The above-mentioned September 2018 review.

In Endocrinology & Metabolism noted that carbohydrate counts are important if you have diabetes, but overeating, such as ketogenic diets, which reduce carbohydrate intake by up to 5 percent of your daily calorie intake, can be harmful to some people . and diabetes.

A ketogenic, or keto, diet requires you to significantly increase your fat intake and eat a moderate amount of protein and a very low amount of carbs, with the aim of kicking your body into a natural condition called ketosis, where you rely on heat. fats instead of carbs to make them stronger.

Ketosis differs from diabetic ketoacidosis, a medical emergency that occurs when insulin levels are low with high levels of ketones, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Although previous reviews have suggested that a ketogenic diet may cause rapid weight loss and may even help put diabetes on release.

another study, published in April 2018 in Diabetes Therapy, showed that it is important to work with your doctor to ensure that your nutritional needs are met.

Having this conversation is very important when you are taking anti-diabetic drugs. Although short-term studies have shown benefits in glycemic control, weight loss, and medication reduction during a keto diet, long-term data are still lacking.

Other dangers of keto diets include low blood sugar, poor drug interactions, and nutrient deficiencies. People who should avoid keto diets include those with kidney damage or disease, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and those at high risk of heart disease due to high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or family history, according to the review.

published February 2014 in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes 2

There is no sure way to prevent type 2 diabetes, but maintaining a healthy weight, following a healthy diet, and exercising regularly can help protect your health. Reducing risk factors such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure can also contribute to the prevention of type 2 diabetes, notes John Muir Health.

Complications of type 2 diabetes

If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you may be experiencing anxiety or worry about the prospect of future health problems, such as amputation, heart disease, and loss of vision. But living with this disease does not lead to these negative consequences.

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes 2

According to a previous study, long-term complications of type 2 diabetes can be prevented and, in some cases, delayed or reduced by a combination of the following:

  • Controlling blood sugar
  • Controlling blood pressure
  • Control of blood cholesterol

You should discuss your level of control (and how to maintain or improve it) with your doctor at all doctor appointments.

If you have been living with diabetes for many years, knowing your A1C goal and standards is very important, as you are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a previous study.

Health Problems Related to Type 2 Diabetes

If your blood sugar is often unbalanced, you could be at greater risk for the following type 2 diabetes problems:

Heart Disease Compared with non-diabetic people, people with diabetes are at a higher risk of heart disease, statistically more likely to develop heart disease at an early age, and have more severe forms of heart disease, according to NHLBI.

The CDC indicates that people with diabetes are also twice as likely to die of heart disease as those without diabetes.

Reducing the risk of heart disease – or treating it, if you have it – involves a combination of lifestyle changes and may or may not include medication, the CDC points out.

Diabetes Retinopathy In diabetic retinopathy, high blood sugar weakens capillaries (small blood vessels) that supply the retina, a layer of light-sensitive tissue behind the inner eye.

The capillaries then become swollen, clogged, or bleed inside the eye, blurred vision. In the advanced stages, new abnormal blood vessels grow.

When these new vessels leak blood, the result could be severe vision loss or blindness, according to the American Optometric Association.

Diabetic Neuropathy Neuropathy, or nerve damage, can affect any nerve in your body. Often, it affects feelings in the feet, legs, hands and arms; this condition is called peripheral neuropathy.

Peripheral neuropathy can cause itching, burning, pain, or numbness in the affected areas.

The pain of peripheral neuropathy is difficult to control, although some find that topical products containing capsaicin are helpful.

Medical products that can help relieve the pain caused by peripheral neuropathy include a variety of antidepressants and anticonvulsants, according to a Mayo Clinic.

Diabetic Nephropathy In diabetic nephropathy, nephrons (or filter units) of the kidneys are damaged by high blood sugar.

High blood pressure exacerbates the problem, and high cholesterol appears to be a factor.

In the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, you may not notice any symptoms, but regular blood and urine tests may detect early signs of dysfunction, and early treatment may stop or delay its progression.

About 25 percent of people with diabetes may have kidney disease, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Diabetes Sores People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing sores on their feet (open sores).

Diabetic ulcers are usually mild, and people may not even know they have them at first.

These sores on the feet can take a few weeks to heal, and they are a major reason for hospitalization for people with diabetes.

If you have diabetes, the Mayo Clinic emphasizes the importance of checking your feet and legs regularly. In this way, you can better diagnose diabetes and if you need treatment immediately.

If you have diabetes, you may also experience sexual issues, gum disease, sleep apnea, and red or brown sores (diabetes).

Research and Statistics: Who Has Type 2 Diabetes?

As mentioned, about 30.3 million people have diabetes, and the majority live with type 2, according to CDC data.

Worldwide, in 2014, the World Health Organization estimated that more than 422 million people had diabetes.

Obesity or obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, as well as racism. For most groups of people, having a BMI of 25 or higher is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but having a BMI 23 or higher is dangerous for Asian Americans, and having a BMI 26 or higher is dangerous Pacific Islanders, according to NIDDK.

BIPOC and Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes directly affects people from Black, Indigenous, and Indigenous (BIPOC) communities. These people are at greater risk of contracting the disease than white people, notes the CDC.

The Spread of Diabetes

A 2020 report published by the US Department of Health and Human Services found that black people had the highest prevalence of diabetes by 16.4 percent, followed by Asians (14.9 percent), Spaniards (14.7 percent), and whites ( 11.9 percent).

Hispanic, Black, Asian American or Pacific Islander teens, as well as Native American teens are also more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes than their white counterparts, according to an article published in April 2017 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Problems With Diabetes

Individuals in BIPOC communities are also more likely to develop complications of the disease, and these problems can lead to worse health outcomes, the FDA notes.

For example, black people, Spanish, and Asian Americans may have nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and other microvascular disorders at higher rates than white Americans.

However, these groups have a lower risk of developing cardiovascular problems with diabetes compared to white Americans, according to a study published in Current Diabetes Reports.

The Office of Microbiology notes that black Americans are twice as likely as white Americans to have their limbs amputated due to diabetes problems; they are more than 3 times the development of kidney disease, and they are more than 3 times more likely to be hospitalized for diabetes.

One previous study found that African Americans were at a higher risk of developing kidney disease, while white Americans were at a higher risk of developing heart disease, heart failure, and diabetes-related stroke.

Death Rates

In addition, the mortality rate of diabetes-related complications was twice as high for non-Hispanic Black Americans as it was for non-Hispanic white Americans, according to the Ministry of Health.

Previous studies have suggested that, for Black, white, Spanish, and Asian American participants in the study, only white Americans experienced a reduction in diabetes-related deaths during the study period (from 1993 to 2001).

Possible Driving Impact behind Health Disorders

The FDA lists a number of possible causes of these differences in diabetic outcomes, including a lack of access to health care, economic status, and cultural attitudes.

Previous research suggests that economic inequality and segregation may cause higher rates of diabetes among black Americans in U.S. cities.

Differences in socioeconomic status in all races or ethnic groups may have caused some – but not all – of the differences, according to a study published in March 2018 in the Annals of Epidemiology.

Problems with the cost of health care and access may point to a barrier to diabetes management in BIPOC communities. African Americans and Hispanic Americans are less likely to have health insurance than white Americans, according to a study published in April 2017 in Population Research and Policy Review.

If they do, Black Americans and Spaniards are less likely to have access to private health insurance, and are more likely to rely on public health insurance (which may carry higher out-of-pocket costs) than white Americans.

People in BIPOC communities may also receive lower-quality diabetes care than white people. They may have little chance of getting a diabetes test, according to a November 2016 article in the Journal of General Internal Medicine;

or less likely to be given insulin or other diabetes control drugs, according to an analysis published October 2019 in PLoS Medicine.

These factors may continue to vary in the degree of complications of diabetes, according to an article published in February 2018 in the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Taking the ADA’s 60-Second 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment can help you determine if you are at high risk for diabetes based on a number of factors, including your race or ethnicity.

Causes Related to Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

Although the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, meaning that there is no single cause, certain conditions exist in relation to this condition.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, conditions associated with type 2 diabetes include:

  • Obesity
  • Heart disease
  • Vascular peripheral disease
  • Stroke
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Retinopathy
  • Glaucoma
  • The coating

The good news is that strict blood sugar control, in the form of diet, exercise, and medication, can prevent these diseases.

Getting peer support can also help, which may reduce hospitalization and stress levels, according to a October 2018 study in Diabetes Care.

Tips for Aging Well With Type 2 Diabetes 2

Unfortunately, aging itself is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, so if you live with diabetes for a long time, you are more likely to have health problems, according to a previous study.

The following tips can help you to stay healthy and keep your blood sugar under control:

  • Rely on your medical team, which may include a psychiatrist, a podiatrist, RDE and CDE, and other specialized health professionals. In most cases, your primary care physician will be your primary health care provider for diabetes care.
  • Stick to your medication plan, and be open to possible medication changes.
  • Take insulin if your doctor says you need it.
  • Don’t smoke, or quit the habit.
  • Eat foods that are good for diabetes and get used to controlling portions.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Check your blood sugar regularly.

Type 2 diabetes and COVID-19

The CDC suggests that having type 2 diabetes may make it easier for you to deal with complications from COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus. However, proper blood sugar management can help reduce this risk.

Orgs are a Favorite to the Important Information on Diabetes

Annual Meeting of the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE).

Daily Life Organizers attend the annual AADE conference to connect with certified diabetes educators, registered nutritionists, and people like you, who are looking for ways to better manage your blood sugar, diet, medication, and more. Check out information on this year’s meeting in Houston.

American Diabetes Association (ADA)

The ADA is considered a leading non-profit organization for type 1 and types 2 diabetes education. The ADA’s annual free program living with Diabetes provides the best services for anyone who has recently lived with diabetes. You’ll get access to their newsletter, a professional Q&A session, and an online support program, among other benefits.

American Heart Association (AHA)

One of our favorite features from the AHA is a source for going to prevent heart disease: Know Diabetes in the heart. The ADA-supported step provides a step-by-step guide to keeping your heart healthy while living with diabetes.

To find out more about the link between diabetes and heart disease, see our article “Heart Disease – Connections to Diabetes.”
Favorite Alternative Medical App
Cleveland Clinic Functional Ketogenics Program

Do you want to give a ketogenic diet (“keto”) a storm to better manage diabetes? This pioneering program from the Cleveland Clinic offers a way to do just that, with trained counselors who can help you adjust your diet and medication along the way.

Favorite Online Support Networks
Diabetes every day

Install this website, and you will soon feel alone in your diabetes journey. They have a lot of encouraging patient stories on top of their platform, which helps you connect with others with diabetes.


These sisters really have your back when it comes to using insulin on the dinner table, making your emotional health a priority, and all the other things you don’t know how to express yourself with your diabetes care team. They exchanged bloggers for three to six months to share their diabetes journey with their words. And don’t let the name of the site fool you: “Diabetes Teachers” are also welcome.

For more of our favorite diabetes blogs, check out our list.

Favorite Diabetes Products Site
Diabetes Forecast Consumer Guide

FOMO in diabetic products is coming to an end. This feature of the magazine and Diabetes Forecast website includes the best of CGM (continuous sugar monitors), glucagon kits, insulin pens, and more.

Favorite Food Advice App
Joslin Diabetes Center

Giving up some of your favorite foods is a huge burden on your diabetes. But with this professional diet guide for Harvard-affiliated organizations, you don’t need to.

To find out more about the “bad” foods you can eat in a diabetes diet, see our article “5 Bad Dietary Diet You Can Enjoy Your Limit.”

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